He is Professor of Economics at Bocconi University (where he also had the role of Prorector for Research until autumn 2014) and Senior Visiting Professor at the London School of Economics (where he had been Centennial Professor). He has been Senior Economist at the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and consultant for the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the European Commission and the International Labour Organization, as well as the Italian government. From March 2015 to February 2019 he was President of the Istituto Nazionale di Previdenza Sociale (INPS). He is Scientific Advisor to the Fondazione Rodolfo Debenedetti (www.frdb.org) , of which he has been Director since it was set up in 1998. He is a Fellow of the European Economic Association and the European Association of Labour Economists.
He is also a Research Fellow of the Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research (IGIER Bocconi), CEPR (Centre for Economic Policy Research), the Centre for Economic Performance in London, IZA (Institut zur Zukunft der Arbeit) in Bonn and Netspar (Network for the Study of Pension and Retirement) in Tillburg. He has been leader writer for “Il Sole 24 Ore”, “La Stampa” and “la Repubblica” and has written for foreign newspapers such as the “Financial Times” and “Le Monde”. He is one of the founders of the economic information website www.lavoce.info and the English language website www.voxeu.org. He is Scientific Director of the Festival of Economics in Trento.
His publications in Italian include: Contro i giovani (with V. Galasso), Mondadori (2007); La crisi non è uguale per tutti, Rizzoli (2009); Classe dirigente (editor together with A. Merlo and A. Prat), Università Bocconi (2010); Le riforme a costo zero (with P. Garibaldi), Chiarelettere (2011); Parlerò solo di calcio, Il Mulino (2012); Populismo e stato sociale, Laterza (2017); Riprendiamoci lo Stato (with S. Rizzo), Feltrinelli (2020).